– Britannica Online Encyclopedia", "Young Nigerians are connecting with Pentecostal churches. [152] Nigeria is the United States' largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil (11% of oil imports). The capital city is Abuja. [102][103][104][105] In the 2019 presidential election, Muhammadu Buhari was re-elected for a second term in office defeating his closet rival Atiku Abubakar. 2 • LOCATION The Yoruba homeland is located in west Africa. It has a huge population by the latest census report. [162] In June 2013, Shell announced a strategic review of its operations in Nigeria, hinting that assets could be divested. Nigeria provides free, government-supported education, but attendance is not compulsory at any level, and certain groups, such as nomads and the handicapped, are under-served. Nigeria is a country in West Africa. Lagos has grown from about 300,000 in 1950[201] to an estimated 13.4 million in 2017. It also shares a border with the self-declared, but internationally unrecognized state of Ambazonia in the southeast. Nigeria , officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a sovereign country in West Africa bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. By 1902, the British had begun plans to move north into the Sokoto Caliphate. The most mountainous area is along the southeastern border with Cameroon, where the Cameroon Highlands rise to the highest points in the country, Chappal Waddi (7,936 feet [2,419 metres]) in the Gotel Mountains and Mount Dimlang (6,699 feet [2,042 metres]) in the Shebshi Mountains. [81] As head of state, Obasanjo vowed to continue Murtala's policies. Since 2002, the country has seen sectarian violence by Boko Haram, a movement that seeks to abolish the secular system of government and establish Sharia law in the country. As of 2012[update], the HIV prevalence rate among adults ages 15–49 was just 3.1 percent. The victim is talked into exchanging bank account information on the premise that the money will be transferred to them and they will get to keep a cut. Its status as a major petroleum producer figures prominently in its sometimes volatile international relations with developed countries, notably the United States, and with developing countries. Haphazard industrial planning, increased urbanisation, poverty and lack of competence of the municipal government are seen as the major reasons for high levels of waste pollution in major cities of the country. However, over the centuries Nigerians have utilized agricultural techniques such as slash and burn, intercropping, and the use of shallow planting implements to cope with the shortcomings of the soil. [215] Kano State has sought to incorporate Sharia law into its constitution. RECENTS EDIT Done Delete All No Recent searches yet, but as soon as you have some, we’ll display them here. [229] In addition, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Aladura Church, the Seventh-day Adventist and various indigenous churches have also experienced growth.[230][231]. Fagg, "The Nok Culture in Prehistory", Abba Idris Adam, "Re-inventing Islamic Civilization in the Sudanic Belt: The Role of Sheikh Usman Dan Fodio. [119], Upon gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria made African unity the centerpiece of its foreign policy and played a leading role in the fight against the apartheid government in South Africa. [82] Aware of the danger of alienating northern Nigerians, Obasanjo brought General Shehu Yar'Adua as his replacement and second-in-command as Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters completing the military triumvirate, with Obasanjo as head of state and General Theophilus Danjuma as Chief of Army Staff, the three went on to re-establish control over the military regime and organized the military's transfer of power programme: states creation and national delimitation, local government reforms and the constitutional drafting committee of the Second Nigerian Republic.[83]. The restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential. In 1995, an estimated 21,000 Nigerian doctors were practising in the United States alone, which is about the same as the number of doctors working in the Nigerian public service. [64] An imbalance was created in the polity by the result of the 1961 plebiscite. Other major slaving ports in Nigeria were located in Badagry, Lagos on the Bight of Benin and on Bonny Island on the Bight of Biafra. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. While many international oil companies have operated there for decades, by 2014 most were making moves to divest their interests, citing a range of issues including oil theft. Nigeria got her independence on oct 1960, having the third fastest growing economy in the world. On March 13, 1903, at the grand market square of Sokoto, the last Vizier of the Caliphate officially conceded to British rule. [158], Prior to the Nigerian civil war, Nigeria was self-sufficient in food. [93] The regime came to an end in 1998, when the dictator died in the villa. English as a first language is used by only a small minority of the country's urban elite, and it is not spoken at all in some rural areas. From independence, Nigeria has tried to develop a domestic nuclear industry for energy. Nelson, P.H.H., Role of Reflection Seismic in Development of Nembe Creek Field, Nigeria, 1980, in Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade: 1968–1978, AAPG Memoir 30, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. The Congolese government, under President Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, took an early stand on the Biafran secession, voicing strong support for the Nigerian federal government[72] and deploying thousands of troops to fight against the secessionists. Its last period of military rule ended in 1999 following the sudden death of former dictator Sani Abacha in 1998. As oil revenues fueled the rise of federal subsidies to states, the federal government became the centre of political struggle and the threshold of power in the country. [237][238] As of 2014[update], life expectancy in Nigeria is 52.62 years on average according to CIA,[239] and just over half the population have access to potable water and appropriate sanitation; As of 2010[update], the infant mortality is 8.4 deaths per 1000 live births. The New Helmsmen. [216] The majority of Quranists follow the Kalo Kato or Quraniyyun movement. As of 1999, it's 194,394 kilometres of road networks are the main means of transportation. Herder—farmer conflict in central Nigeria, violent protests by Muslims in the Northern part of the country, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Drilling and Killing: Chevron and Nigeria's Oil Dictatorship, International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam, "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020 – Nigeria", "Nigeria's Buhari wins historic election landslide", "Linguistic diversity in Africa and Europe – Languages Of The World", "Choosing an Indigenous Official Language for Nigeria", "The countries with the 10 largest Christian populations and the 10 largest Muslim populations", "Nigeria to Give All of Its 200 Million People Identity Numbers", "Nigeria becomes Africa's largest economy", "Nigerian Economy Overtakes South Africa's on Rebased GDP", "Nigeria is poised to become Africa's most powerful nation", The Americas in Transition: The Contours of Regionalism, South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership, "MINT Countries: Nigeria Now Listed Among Emerging World Economic Powers", "The Mint countries: Next economic giants? Nigeria made history by qualifying the first bobsled team for the Winter Olympics from Africa when their women's two-man team qualified for the bobsled competition at the XXIII Olympic Winter Games in Pyeongchang, South Korea. It has reached lower-middle-income status according to the World Bank,[151] with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange (the Nigerian Stock Exchange), which is the second-largest in Africa. For other uses, see, Not to be confused with the neighbouring country, Independence and First Republic (1960–1966), Civilian rule and Second Republic (1979–1983), Military rule and Third Republic (1983–1999), Democratization and Fourth Republic (1999–present), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. In 2017 agreements were signed for the construction of the Itu nuclear power plant. The nation's cadet team from Japan '93 produced some international players notably Nwankwo Kanu, a two-time African Footballer of the year who won the European Champions League with Ajax Amsterdam and later played with Inter Milan, Arsenal, West Bromwich Albion and Portsmouth. Nigeria has a diverse geography, with climates ranging from arid to humid equatorial. Countries near Nigeria include Cameroon, Benin, Equatorial Guinea and Togo. [161], The Niger Delta Nembe Creek Oil field was discovered in 1973 and produces from middle Miocene deltaic sandstone-shale in an anticline structural trap at a depth of 2 to 4 kilometres (7,000 to 13,000 feet). NigeriaSat-2, Nigeria's second satellite, was built as a high-resolution earth satellite by Surrey Space Technology Limited, a United Kingdom-based satellite technology company. [citation needed] There are also many plants with medicinal purposes that are used to aid the therapy in many organs. [144], As industrialization has increased, it has also put species of trees in the forest at risk to air pollution and studies have shown that in certain parts of Nigeria, trees have shown tolerance and grow in areas that have a significant amount air pollution[145]. [277][278] Early marriages can result in fistula. ", "World Bank Country and Lending Groups – World Bank Data Help Desk", "Nok Terracottas (500 B.C.–200 A.D.) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art", "Iron and its influence on the prehistoric site of Lejja", "Nigeria: A Country Study – The Slave Trade", "Slow death slavery course abolition northern Nigeria 18971936 | Regional history after 1500", "Civil Military Affairs and Military Culture in Post-Transition Nigeria", "Wiwa et al v. Royal Dutch Petroleum et al", "Ruling party named winner in disputed Nigerian election", "Nigeria's Goodluck Jonathan sworn in as president", "National Assembly confirms Sambo as Vice President", "Nigerians Vote in Presidential Election", "Nigeria election: Muhammadu Buhari wins", "Obama praises Nigeria's president for conceding defeat", "APC praises Jonathan for conceding defeat", "Anyaoku Praises Jonathan For Conceding Defeat", "Buhari beats Atiku to secure re-election as Nigeria president", "Legislation and the Electoral Process: The Third Term Agenda and the Future of Nigerian Democracy", "Nigeria has lost $400bn oil revenue to corruption since Independence – Ezekwesili", "Ethnic Politics in Nigeria: The Realities of Regionalism", "Nigeria Records Improvement, Ranked 39th on Corruption Index", Nigerian former minister 'stole $6bn of public money', "Collins Edomaruse, how Obasanjo cut UK, US to size", "Egbe Omo Yoruba, National Association of Yoruba descendants in North America", "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies? [138] To the southwest of the Niger is "rugged" highland. [256] These scams involve a complicit Nigerian bank (the laws being set up loosely to allow it) and a scammer who claims to have money he needs to obtain from that bank. For this triumvirate, they convinced General Murtala Mohammad to become military head of state, with General Olusegun Obasanjo as his second-in-command, and General Theophilus Danjuma as the third. Lagos, subsequent to the re-modernization project achieved by the previous administration of Governor Raji Babatunde Fashola, is gradually becoming a major tourist destination, being one of the largest cities in Africa and in the world. This culminated from the assumption that exotic trees are fast-growing. Nigeria is classified as a mixed economy emerging market. There are small minorities of British, American, Indian, Chinese (est. [180] In 2013, Nigeria introduced a policy regarding import duty on vehicles to encourage local manufacturing companies in the country. The military coup of Muhammadu Buhari shortly after the regime's re-election in 1984 was generally viewed as a positive development. [259][260] In the 2010 Jos riots, more than 500 people were killed by religious violence. Omissions? As Africa's most populated country, Nigeria has repositioned its military as a peacekeeping force on the continent. There are also Ahmadiyya and Mahdiyya minorities,[217] as well as followers of the Baháʼí Faith. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The railways have undergone a massive revamping with projects such as the Lagos-Kano Standard Gauge Railway being completed connecting northern cities of Kano, Kaduna, Abuja, Ibadan and Lagos. [169] Lagos is regarded as one of the largest technology hubs in Africa with its thriving tech ecosysytem. Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context: p. 21. Ports are color coded by size. NigComSat-1, was the first Nigerian satellite built-in 2004, was Nigeria's third satellite and Africa's first communication satellite. The Niger River, for which the country is named, and the Benue, its largest tributary, are the principal rivers. [186] On 10 November 2008 (0900 GMT), the satellite was reportedly switched off for analysis and to avoid a possible collision with other satellites. [12] Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Muslims, who live mostly in the north, and Christians, who live mostly in the south. Nigeria has been home to several indigenous pre-colonial states and kingdoms since the second millennium BC, with the Nok Civilization having been the first time the country had been unified internally in the 15th Century B.C. This satellite was launched into orbit from a military base in China. The following year, it chartered the Royal Niger Company under the leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie. Many of the immigrants, sometimes called Saro (immigrants from Sierra Leone) and Amaro (ex-slaves from Brazil)[209] later became prominent merchants and missionaries in these cities. A key regional player in West Africa, Nigeria accounts for about half of West Africa’s population with approximately 202 million people and one of the largest populations of youth in the world. Britain intervened in the Lagos Kingship power struggle by bombarding Lagos in 1851, deposing the slave trade friendly Oba Kosoko, helping to install the amenable Oba Akitoye, and signing the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos on 1 January 1852. The capital is Abuja. [193] Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and accounts for about 17% of the continent's total population as of 2017; however, exactly how populous is a subject of speculation. The Jos Plateau rises almost in the centre of the country; it consists of extensive lava surfaces dotted with numerous extinct volcanoes. Tertiary education in Nigeria consists of Universities (Public and Private), Polytechnics, Monotechnics, and Colleges of education. Nigeria is a country with a large population which is located in the continent/region of Africa. The utilization of these and many other herbs growing naturally within the farm environment is opportunistic. [212] As common in other parts of Africa where Islam and Christianity are dominant, religious syncretism with the Traditional African religions is common throughout Nigeria.[213]. since the Federal Government introduced tough new measures against religious violence in all affected parts of the country. [112] Following the bloody civil war, nationalism has seen an increase in the southern part of the country leading to active secessionist movements such as the Oodua Peoples Congress (OPC) and the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), though these groups are largely small and not representative of the entire ethnic group. Imbalances between North and South were expressed in Nigeria's political life as well. Nigeria was ranked 21st in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) in 2015. In the Nigerian state of Akwa Ibom, about 15,000 children were branded as witches; most of them ended up abandoned and abused on the streets. The UNHCR representative said in 20 years of work, she had "never seen such a level of destruction". Rainfall is more limited, to between 500 and 1,500 millimetres (20 and 60 in) per year. The characteristic landforms of the plateaus are high plains with broad, shallow valleys dotted with numerous hills or isolated mountains, called inselbergs; the underlying rocks are crystalline, although sandstones appear in river areas. All major parties have practised vote-rigging and other means of coercion to remain competitive. [255], Internationally, Nigeria is infamous for a form of bank fraud dubbed 419, a type of advance fee fraud (named after Section 419 of the Nigerian Penal Code) along with the "Nigerian scam", a form of confidence trick practised by individuals and criminal syndicates. The education system is divided into Kindergarten, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. It supported movements against white minority governments in the Southern Africa sub-region. The Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Its coastline is at least 853 km (530 mi). The signal could be received by amateur radio operators. With this Africa-centered stance, Nigeria readily sent troops to the Congo at the behest of the United Nations shortly after independence (and has maintained membership since that time). Select a location from the list: Nigeria Massmart is a South African-based globally competitive regional management group, invested in a portfolio of differentiated, … [159] In August 2019, Nigeria closed its border with Benin to stop rice smuggling into the country as part of efforts to boost the local production. Other eroded surfaces, such as the Udi-Nsukka escarpment (see Udi-Nsukka Plateau), rise abruptly above the plains at elevations of at least 1,000 feet (300 metres). Nigeria is a West African country located in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres of the Earth. The areas surrounding Calabar, Cross River State, also in this forest, are believed to contain the world's largest diversity of butterflies. The disequilibrium and perceived corruption of the electoral and political process led, in 1966, to back-to-back military coups. However, Nigeria’s most diverse feature is its people. As of 2014[update] it is the largest economy in Africa, having overtaken South Africa. The world bank states Nigeria has had a 7.4% economic growth in July, 2019 which has been their highest yet since the gross domestic product rate decreased to 2%. NigeriaEduSat-1 was a satellite designed, built, and owned by the Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA), in conjunction with Nigeria's National Space Research and Development Agency and Japan's Kyushu Institute of Technology. Both sites are planned to house two plants each. [120] One exception to the African focus was Nigeria's close relationship developed with Israel throughout the 1960s. [122] Nigeria is also a member of the International Criminal Court, and the Commonwealth of Nations. 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